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Saturday, December 10, 2016

Though his name has been mentioned in the very beginning of the question, still I feel his story should be well expressed-

Image result for APJ Abdul Kalam

Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam usually known Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam, was the 11th President of India, serving from 2002 to 2007, he is one of the few presidents who have touched the hearts thats why during his term as President, he was popularly known as the People's President. In India he is highly respected as a scientist and as an engineer. He is popularly known as the Missile Man of India for his work on development of ballistic missile and space rocket technology.

Stories of extreme hardship, braving impossible odds and innumerable sacrifices, abound in the lives of nearly 90 percent of the students in the country. But among them, some perform exceptionally well. Their academic laurels are so brilliant, that at times their CV looks intimidating. And each one acknowledges that it's the right education that made them what they are today.

Several months back, after finishing an interview with Dr APJ Kalam, and just before leaving his Rajaji Marg residence he made me repeat these three words in a schoolteacher's tone: perseverance, hard work and patience.

This, he said, was alone the path to progress. Later, much later, I realised, that those were the very words he's lived by all through his life. They are both philosophical and practical, quite like the world he grew up in as a boy in the island town of Rameswaran, in south India.

His father, a humble boat owner, Jainulabdeen, was a devout Muslim and a close friend of the Rameswaran temple priest. Kalam was brought up in a multi-religious, tolerant society; one with a progressive outlook. His father often quoted from the Quran to make the young Kalam see the world without fear. He had seven siblings, and a doting mother who, at times, made chappatis for Kalam, while the others were given rice as Kalam's day would start at four in the morning and end at 11 pm.

His father wasn't educated, but he wanted Kalam to study. Kalam would get up at 4 am, bathe, and then go for his mathematics class, which was taught by a teacher who took only five students in the whole session; and bathing before class was a condition he had laid to all his students. After his morning class, Kalam along with his cousin Samsuddin went around town distributing the newspaper. As the town had no electricity, kerosene lamps were lit at his home between 7 pm and 9 pm. But because Kalam studied until 11, his mother would save some for him for later use.

Being a bright student, Kalam always had the support of his schoolteachers. Schwarzt High School's Iyadurai Solomon often told Kalam that if he truly, intensely desired something, he would get it. "This made me fearless," said Dr Kalam. And outside school, Ahmed Jallaluddin, who later became his brother-in-law, and Samsuddin, encouraged Kalam to appreciate nature's wonders. So at once, while growing up, he was exposed to a religious and a practical way of looking at the world.

The flight of birds had fascinated him since he was a boy, but it was years later he realised that he wanted to fly aircrafts. After finishing school, he took up Physics at St Joseph's College, Trichi, but towards the end he was dissatisfied. When he discovered aeronautical engineering, he regretted having lost three precious years. But he was glad to have discovered Leo Tolstoy, Thomas Hardy and F Scott Fitzgerald and other English poets in his college years.

At Madras Institute of Technology (MIT), Chennai, where Kalam studied aeronautics, he learnt an important lesson: the value of time. He was leading a project on system design, when one day the principal walked into the class to see his work. He appeared dissatisfied and told Kalam that he wanted the project finished in the next two days; else his scholarship aid would be withdrawn. That unsettled Kalam; years of his father's hardships would come to naught. Kalam worked without food and sleep. On the last day, his professor came to check on his progress. He was impressed and said: "I was putting you under stress and asking you to meet a difficult deadline," recounted Dr Kalam.

Although Kalam has led several projects in his professional life, he's treated each like his last. Such was his passion. No wonder, he's always led projects. His advisor, Major General R Swaminathan explained Kalam's success as a leader. "He has this unique capability of being a boss as well as a worker. He can take on any role with ease."

When Dr Kalam's first major project SLV 3-failed the first time he was almost shattered. Also, around this time, Kalam's childhood mentor, Jallaluddin, died. "A part of me too passed away..." said Dr Kalam. But he never thought of quitting after SLV-3. "I knew that for success, we have to work hard and persevere." And so, SLV-3 was launched again, this time with success. He drew strength from philosophy, religion and literature to tide by his professional setbacks; also a life with few companions. In time, he also learnt to deal with professional jealousy and uncooperative team members.

Kalam played a pivotal organisational, technical and political role in India's Pokhran-II nuclear test in 1998, the first since the original nuclear test by India in 1974. He is chancellor of Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology (Thiruvanthapuram), a professor at Anna University (Chennai) and adjunct/visiting faculty at many other academic and research institutions across India.

Success followed Dr Kalam. Prithvi, Agni, Akash, Trishul and Nag missiles were huge successes. He was awarded the Padma Bhushan and Bharat Ratna, and then he became the President of India; one of the few presidents who have touched the hearts of so many poor children in the country. Because he also came from a poor background, he knew the power of education in changing one's future.

There is this another story that describes his phenomenal leadership qualities-

There were about 70 scientists working on a very hectic project. All of them were really frustrated due to the pressure of work and the demands of their boss but everyone was loyal to him and did not think of quitting the job.
One day, one scientist came to his boss and told him – Sir, I have promised to my children that I will take them to the exhibition going on in our township. So I want to leave the office at 5 30 pm. His boss replied “OK, You’re permitted to leave the office early today”. The Scientist started working. He continued his work after lunch. As usual he got involved to such an extent that he looked at his watch when he felt he was close to completion. The time was 8.30 PM. Suddenly he remembered of the promise he had given to his children.
He looked for his boss, He was not there. Having told him in the morning itself, he closed everything and left for home.
Deep within himself, he was feeling guilty for having disappointed his children. He reached home. Children were not there. His wife alone was sitting in the hall and reading magazines.
The situation was explosive, any talk would boomerang on him. His wife asked him “Would you like to have coffee or shall I straight away serve dinner if you are hungry.
The man replied “If you would like to have coffee, I too will have but what about Children ??” .Wife replied “You don’t know?? , Your manager came here at 5.15 PM and has taken the children to the exhibition “.
What had really happened was …. The boss who granted him permission was observing him working seriously at 5.00 PM. He thought to himself, this person will not leave the work, but if he has promised his children they should enjoy the visit to exhibition. So he took the lead in taking them to exhibition The boss does not have to do it every time. But once it is done, loyalty is established.
That is why all the scientists at Thumba continued to work under their boss even though the stress was tremendous.
By the way, can you hazard a guess as to who the boss was ?
He was none other than Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam .

Source: http://www.timepass.info/post/Life-History-of-Dr-APJ-Abdul-Kalam.aspx
Naga Naresh Karutura has just passed out of IIT Madras in Computer Science and has joined Google in Bangalore. You may ask, what’s so special about this 21-year-old when there are hundreds of students passing from various IITs and joining big companies like Google?

Naresh is special. His parents are illiterate. He has no legs and moves around in his powered wheel chair.

Ever smiling, optimistic and full of spirit; that is Naresh. He says, “God has always been planning things for me. That is why I feel I am lucky.” Read why Naresh feels he is lucky.

Childhood in a village
I spent the first seven years of my life in Teeparru, a small village in Andhra Pradesh, on the banks of the river Godavari . My father Prasad was a lorry driver and my mother Kumari, a house wife. Though they were illiterate, my parents instilled in me and my elder sister (Sirisha) the importance of studying.

Looking back, one thing that surprises me now is the way my father taught me when I was in the 1st and 2nd standards. My father would ask me questions from the text book, and I would answer them. At that time, I didn’t know he could not read or write but to make me happy, he helped me in my studies!

Another memory that doesn’t go away is the floods in the village and how I was carried on top of a buffalo by my uncle. I also remember plucking fruits from a tree that was full of thorns.

I used to be very naughty, running around and playing all the time with my friends.. I used to get a lot of scolding for disturbing the elders who slept in the afternoon. The moment they started scolding, I would run away to the fields!

I also remember finishing my school work fast in class and sleeping on the teacher’s lap!


January 11, 1993, the fateful day
On the January 11, 1993 when we had the sankranti holidays, my mother took my sister and me to a nearby village for a family function. From there we were to go with our grandmother to our native place. But my grandmother did not come there. As there were no buses that day, my mother took a lift in my father’s friend’s lorry. As there were many people in the lorry, he made me sit next to him, close to the door.

It was my fault; I fiddled with the door latch and it opened wide throwing me out. As I fell, my legs got cut by the iron rods protruding from the lorry. Nothing happened to me except scratches on my legs.

The accident had happened just in front of a big private hospital but they refused to treat me saying it was an accident case. Then a police constable who was passing by took us to a government hospital.

First I underwent an operation as my small intestine got twisted. The doctors also bandaged my legs. I was there for a week. When the doctors found that gangrene had developed and it had reached up to my knees, they asked my father to take me to a district hospital. There, the doctors scolded my parents a lot for neglecting the wounds and allowing the gangrene to develop. But what could my ignorant parents do?

In no time, both my legs were amputated up to the hips.

I remember waking up and asking my mother, where are my legs? I also remember that my mother cried when I asked the question. I was in the hospital for three months.

Life without legs
I don’t think my life changed dramatically after I lost both my legs. Because all at home were doting on me, I was enjoying all the attention rather than pitying myself. I was happy that I got a lot of fruits and biscuits.
‘I never wallowed in self-pity’

The day I reached my village, my house was flooded with curious people; all of them wanted to know how a boy without legs looked. But I was not bothered; I was happy to see so many of them coming to see me, especially my friends!

All my friends saw to it that I was part of all the games they played; they carried me everywhere.

God’s hand. I believe in God. I believe in destiny. I feel he plans everything for you. If not for the accident, we would not have moved from the village to Tanuku, a town. There I joined a missionary school, and my father built a house next to the school. Till the tenth standard, I studied in that school.
If I had continued in Teeparu, I may not have studied after the 10th. I may have started working as a farmer or someone like that after my studies. I am sure God had other plans for me.

My sister, my friend
When the school was about to reopen, my parents moved from Teeparu to Tanuku, a town, and admitted both of us in a Missionary school. They decided to put my sister also in the same class though she is two years older. They thought she could take care of me if both of us were in the same class. My sister never complained.

She would be there for everything. Many of my friends used to tell me, you are so lucky to have such a loving sister. There are many who do not care for their siblings.

She carried me in the school for a few years and after a while, my friends took over the task. When I got the tricycle, my sister used to push me around in the school.

My life, I would say, was normal, as everyone treated me like a normal kid. I never wallowed in self-pity. I was a happy boy and competed with others to be on top and the others also looked at me as a competitor.

I was inspired by two people when in school; my Maths teacher Pramod Lal who encouraged me to participate in various local talent tests, and a brilliant boy called Chowdhary, who was my senior.
When I came to know that he had joined Gowtham Junior College to prepare for IIT-JEE, it became my dream too. I was school first in 10th scoring 542/600.

Because I topped in the state exams, Gowtham Junior College waived the fee for me. Pramod Sir’s recommendation also helped. The fee was around Rs 50,000 per year, which my parents could never afford.

Moving to a residential school
Living in a residential school was a big change for me because till then my life centred around home and school and I had my parents and sister to take care of all my needs. It was the first time that I was interacting with society. It took one year for me to adjust to the new life.

There, my inspiration was a boy called K K S Bhaskar who was in the top 10 in IIT-JEE exams. He used to come to our school to encourage us. Though my parents didn’t know anything about Gowtham Junior School or IIT, they always saw to it that I was encouraged in whatever I wanted to do.. If the results were good, they would praise me to the skies and if bad, they would try to see something good in that. They did not want me to feel bad. They are such wonderful supportive parents.


Life at IIT- Madras
Though my overall rank in the IIT-JEE was not that great (992), I was 4th in the physically handicapped category. So, I joined IIT, Madras to study Computer Science.
Here, my role model was Karthik who was also my senior in school. I looked up to him during my years at IIT- Madras. He had asked for attached bathrooms for those with special needs before I came here itself. So, when I came here, the room had attached bath. He used to help me and guide me a lot when I was here.
I evolved as a person in these four years, both academically and personally. It has been a great experience studying here. The people I was interacting with were so brilliant that I felt privileged to sit along with them in the class. Just by speaking to my lab mates, I gained a lot..
‘There are more good people in society than bad ones’

July 28, 2008
Words are inadequate to express my gratitude to Prof Pandurangan and all my lab mates; all were simply great. I was sent to Boston along with four others for our internship by Prof Pandurangan. It was a great experience.

Joining Google R&D
I did not want to pursue PhD as I wanted my parents to take rest now. Morgan Stanley selected me first but I preferred Google because I wanted to work in pure computer science, algorithms and game theory.

I am lucky. Do you know why I say I am lucky?

I get help from total strangers without me asking for it. Once after my second year at IIT, I with some of my friends was travelling in a train for a conference. We met a kind gentleman called Sundar in the train, and he has been taking care of my hostel fees from then on.

I have to mention about Jaipur foot. I had Jaipur foot when I was in 3rd standard. After two years, I stopped using them. As I had almost no stems on my legs, it was very tough to tie them to the body. I found walking with Jaipur foot very, very slow. Sitting also was a problem. I found my tricycle faster because I am one guy who wants to do things faster.

One great thing about the hospital is, they don’t think their role ends by just fixing the Jaipur foot; they arrange for livelihood for all. They asked me what help I needed from them. I told them at that time, if I got into an IIT, I needed financial help from them. So, from the day I joined IIT, Madras , my fees were taken care of by them. So, my education at the IIT was never a burden on my parents and they could take care of my sister’s Nursing studies.

Surprise awaited me at IIT
After my first year, when I went home, two things happened here at the Institute without my knowledge.

I got a letter from my department that they had arranged a lift and ramps at the department for me. It also said that if I came a bit early and checked whether it met with my requirements, it would be good.

Second surprise was, the Dean, Prof Idichandy and the Students General Secretary, Prasad had located a place that sold powered wheel chairs. The cost was Rs 55,000. What they did was, they did not buy the wheel chair; they gave me the money so that the wheel chair belonged to me and not the institute.

My life changed after that. I felt free and independent. That’s why I say I am lucky. God has planned things for me and takes care of me at every step.

The world is full of good people.

I also feel if you are motivated and show some initiative, people around you will always help you. I also feel there are more good people in society than bad ones. I want all those who read this to feel that if Naresh can achieve something in life, you can too.

Source: www.vtualerts.com/inspiratonal-stories

Image result for huawei logo#WALKIN_ALERT : Huawei hiring Freshers for Development profile!

#Note :- IF having good command in Java / c programming then Must attend !

Interview Date- Dec.11, 2016 Time: 7:30 AM

Positions- 25

Essential Qualifications
  • BE/B Tech (any specialization) 2015 & 20116 batch 
  • Minimum 70% in 10th, 12th, and bachelor’s degree
  •  Elitimus score is not mandatory but if having more than 80% then will be preferred.

Required Android Developer in the Mobile Application Division of Huawei Technologies India Pvt. Ltd.. We are looking for people who have prior Android application development experience/training.
Skills Required
  • Strong basics of Java, C, and OOPs
  • Strong communication, analytical and problem solving skills. 
  • Quick Learner & Good in Presentation Skills. 

Additional Skills good to have
  • Knowledge of integrating RESTful APIs with the Android App
  • Knowledge of application life-cycle, networking, data management, and understanding of android layouts/hierarchies 
  • Familiarity with Git.

Selection Process
  • Step 1: Candidates are required to take an Aptitude Test and a language test (C or Java). 
  • Step 2: The shortlisted candidates will go ahead for a F2F Technical Round
  • Final/Step 3: HR interview round.

Salary: 2.8 lacs per annum plus a yearly bonus based on performance

Experience: (0-2) years

Location: Bangalore only

212/A, 1st Main Road
2nd Stage Domlur
Bangalore - 560071

Landmark- Hotel Bhagini Palace, below Sherlock pub

Opening in Manhattan Associates for Dot Net Developers.
Anyone interested can drop a mail with resume @ amitsingh@manh.com.


Opening @ Big Blue Bubble INDIA, for Software Trainee Engineer

About Company: 
Image result for Big Blue BubbleWe are testing and development company , more into CRM and Android games development, we are now starting our Bangalore branch and we are looking for engg fresh graduates.
For more details about our projects have a look into the company portal.

Website: http://www.bigbluebubble.in

Eligibility Criteria:
- BE/Btech,MCA, Mtech

Experience: 0-1 year

Post Name: Software Trainee Engineer /Testing Engineer

  • - Should have Interest on Java
  • - Attitude of Learning 
  • - should be good in basics in Core java
  • - should be interested in career and committed towards Job
  • - Should have good knowledge on testing and completed training on Testing . 
  • - Certification on Testing

Job Description:
  • - Software Developers in Java, J2EE and Web application development domain. 
  • - Designing, coding and debugging and maintenance of Java, J2EE application systems.
  • - Excellent knowledge of building Automation Frameworks from scratch 
  • - Understanding Business 

Salary: INR 3,50,000 - 4,75,000 P.A

How to Apply: 

Please click here to apply 


Image result for JobZionGreetings from JobZion Bangalore.
Hiring for multiple companies in Bangalore

Qualification -10th, 12th and Graduates

Experience: 0 to 4.5 years

Position: HR (Recruiters)/ telecallers / Domestic / International voice and non-voice process

Salary: up to 25k per month best in the industry.

For interview schedule please email your resume to the below given email id.

Email: Jobzion.123@gmail.com

For further Information please Contact: 8088926733/9066729989

Job Description
We are Looking for a JavaScript Expert with strong skills in PHP, are you? If Yes, Please join the crew and start a new exciting experience at Skills OutsourceThink Pvt Ltd.

Skills and Experience
  • • Advanced Javascript expertise with at least 3 years of object oriented programming ( OOP ).
  • • Experience with Mootools and Prototype is preferred.
  • • Expertise in HTML 5, CSS,XML,Json.
  • • Previous experience with PHP Zend Framework.
  • • Comfortable programming from scrath, not dependent on Framework.
  • • Experience with PostgreSQL
  • • Strong debugging Skills
  • • Knowledges on Digital Video Ad Serving Template ( Vast ).

Industry: IT-Software / Software Services

Role: Software Developer

Image result for Deskera#Deskera is hiring Java Fresher/ Developer

Qualification : BE/ B.Tech/ M.Tech/ MCA

Experience: Fresher/ 0 to 2 years

Job Location: Pune

Required skills:

  • Strong analytical problem solving skills 
  • Strong Object Oriented Programming skills 
  • Good understanding of Data Structures and Algorithms
  • Should have extensive knowledge of the Java programming language 
  • Understanding of Design Patterns, J2EE components (EJB, JSP, Servlets), and XML. 
  • Knowledge of frameworks like Hibernate, spring, JPA, SOAP/ REST.

Apply Here


#Referral_Job_Alert : Fiserv India hiring 2016 fresher!

Related image Eligibility:
  • *2016 batch pass out
  • *65% or above in X and XII
  • *60% or above in BE/B.Tech (CS/IT/E&C) 
  • *OR 65%in graduation and 60% in MCA
  • * Degree qualification completed within stipulated time lenght (no gaps )

How to Apply:

Interested candidates Please send your profile to avinash.chalke@fiserv.com By 16 Dec 2016.

Joining date of selected candidates will be based on the demand and hence it may take time

Open Position Designation- Testing and Client Relations

Image result for JSM TechnologiesDepartment: Testing

Location : Bangalore

Manpower Requisition: CodeJSM/HR/Testing/2015-2016/001

Job Description:
Employees working in this position shall be having the followingJR

  • 1. Manual Testing.
  • 2. Software Products Testing.
  • 3. Client Management.
  • 4. Change requests Testing.
  • 5. Client reported Bugs testing.
  • 6. Product Enhancement testing.
  • 7. Test Documentation.
  • 8. Project Documentation.
  • 9. Coordination in Project Management.
  • 10. MIS
Skill Sets Desired:
  • 1. Manual Testing.
  • 2. Thorough knowledge and mastery of all Testing Concepts.
  • 3. Thorough knowledge of STLC.
  • 4. Good Written and Spoken English Language.
SkillsDesired Candidate Profile:
  • 1. Education – Bachelors or Master’s Degree in Engineering / Computer Applications.
  • 2. Experience – 0 to 1 years’ experience.
  • 3. Professional Course – A Post Degree Professional Course inTesting is a MUST. We shall not recruit without the candidate having attended a Testing Course.
  • 4. Project Experience – A hands on experience in a Testing Project is a MUST. Candidate should necessarily have undergone practical hands on training on Testing in a live project.
  • 5. Desired soft skills – Commitment, dependability, team work,Consistency, Ability to withstand pressure on tight deadline projects, Client Management under tough conditions, Punctuality, Disciplined, Ethical behaviour, delivering as per client deadlines.
Selection Process
  • Round 1 – Initial HR Round.
  • Round 2 – Face to Face – Technical Round
  • Round 3 – Analytical.
  • Round4 – Test Case writing on JSM Software product.
  • Round 5 – A Sample exercise on JSM Software Product.Round 6 – Final Top Management Interview.
  • Round 7 – Final HR Round and Finalisation of Employment terms and conditions.
Service Tenure Commitment
We at JSM strongly believe that a person takes a few months to understand a company’s culture, products and systems. Historically speaking we have come to a conclusion that the first year of any person in an organization goes in learning and settling down. The second year the person with more experience of a company’s products, systems and processes is able to contribute to the organization and in the process of actually implementing what he or she has learned further grows in life and in the organization. Hence we strongly believe that for any kind of association to be meaningful as well as profitable for both company and employee a long term association is a must. Consequently we encourage all candidates who are looking and can commit to at least a minimum of 2 years of association with JSM to apply

How to Apply:

Email Resume If you are interested in the above position and are willing to commit as per service tenure given above please email your resume to hrd@jsmtechnologies.com.

Note:Please mention Manpower requisition code (available on starting of this post) in the subject of the mail.

Image result for Trigent Software#Trigent Software Walk-In For Freshers As Support Engineers On 12-16 Dec 2016 @ Bangalore. 

Fundamental Technical knowledge on system trouble shooting, few prominent knowledge areas are:

  • Microsoft Windows Operating Systems (9X, NT, 2000, XP)
  • Microsoft Office
  • Network Connectivity
  • Printers and print Services
  • E Mail and Internet mail
  • Familiar with Lotus Notes and MS Outlook email clients.
  • Excellent communication skills, with neutral accent. (Voice based Support)
  • Excellent written communication skills with email etiquette. 

Walk In Date : From 12th to 16th December 2016

Walk In Time : 10.00 AM sharp. Walk In Venue :

Walk In Venue:
Trigent Software, Ltd.,
49, Race Course Road,
Khanija Bhavan Building,
2nd Floor, East Wing,
Bangalore 560001.

Landmark: After Chalukya Hotel

Contact Person : Sripriya R.

Contact Number : +91 80 22157000 (Ext: 121)

A Jobless man applied for the position of ‘office boy’ at a very big company.

The employer interviewed him, then a test: clean the floor.
You are hired.” – the employer said. ”Give me your email address, and I’ll send you the application to fill, as well as when you will start.
The man replied, “I don’t have a computer, neither an email.
I’m sorry,” said the employer, “if you don’t have an email , you cannot have the job.
The man left with no hope. He didn’t know what to do, with only $10 USD in his pocket.

He then decided to go to the supermarket, bought a 10 kg tomato crate, then sold the tomatoes door to door. In less than two hours, he succeeded and doubled his capital. He repeated the operation 3 times and returned home with $60 USD. The man realized that he could survive by this way, and started to go everyday earlier, and returned late. Thus, his money doubled or tripled everyday. Shortly later, he bought a cart, then a truck, and then he had his own fleet of delivery vehicles.

Five years later, the man’s company was one of the biggest food retailers. He started to plan his family’s future, and decided to have a life insurance. He called an insurance broker and chose a protection plan. When the conversation was concluded, the broker asked him his email. The man replied: “I don’t have an email.”
The broker replied curiously, “You don’t have an email, and yet have succeeded to build an empire. Do you imagine what position you could have if you had an email?
The man paused for a while, and replied: “An office boy!
Don’t be discouraged if something is not in your favor today. Better opportunities are always waiting ahead.

"If we think of giving up trying,we will never get to see the success. There are times when we wanted to give up, but with perseverance, we can overcome them and eventually attain success."

Always remember, "When you are wasting time, someone is working at the same time and the day you compete with that person, you will lose"

Cheers for life!!


Ques.1. What is database testing?
Ans. Database testing is checking the integrity of actual data in the front end with the data present in the database. It involves validating the data in the database, checking that there are no orphan records (record with a foreign key to a parent record that has been deleted"), no junk records are present, updating records in database and verify the value in the front end.

Ques.2. What is RDBMS?
Ans. An RDBMS or Relational Database Management System is a type of DBMS having relationships between the tables using indexes and different constraints like primary key, foreign key etc. The use of indexes and constraints helps in faster retreival and better management of data within the databases.

Ques.3. What is the difference between DBMS and RDBMS?
Ans. The primary difference between DBMS and RDBMS is, in RDBMS we have relations between the tables of the database. Whereas in DBMS there is no relation between the tables(data may even be stored in files).
RDBMS has primary keys and data is stored in tables. DBMS has no concept of primary keys with data stored in navigational or hierarchical form.
RDBMS defines integrity constraints in order to follow ACID properties. While DBMS doesn't follow ACID properties.

Ques.4. What is a database?
Ans. A database is a structured collection of data for faster and better access, storage and manipulation of data.
A database can also be defined as collection of tables, schema, views and other database objects.

Ques.5. What is a table?
Ans. Tables are the database object that are used for storing related records in the form of rows and columns.

Ques.6. What is field in a table?
Ans. A field is an entity used for storing a particular type of data within a table like numbers, characters, dates etc.

Ques.7. What is a tuple, record or row in a table?
Ans. A tuple or record is an ordered set of related data item in a table.

Ques.8. What is SQL?
Ans. SQL stands for Structured Query Language, it is an language used for creating, storing, fetching and updating of data and database objects in RDBMS.

Ques.9. What are the different types of SQL commands?
Ans. SQL commands are the set of commands used to communicate and manage the data present in the database. The different type of SQL commands are-

DDL - Data Definition Language
DML - Data Manipulation Language
DCL - Data Control Language
TCL - Transactional Control Language

Ques.10. Explain DDL commands. What are the different DDL commands in SQL?
Ans. DDL refers to Data Definition Language, it is used to define or alter the structure of the database. The different DDL commands are-

CREATE - Used to create table in the database
DROP - Drops the table from the database
ALTER - Alters the structure of the database
TRUNCATE - Deletes all the records from the database but not its database structure
RENAME - Renames a database object

Ques.11. Explain DML commands. What are the different DML commands in SQL?
Ans. DML refers to Data Manipulation Language, it is used for managing data present in the database. Some of the DML commands are-select, insert, update, delete etc.

Ques.12. Explain DCL commands. What are the different DCL commands in SQL?
Ans. DCL refers to Data Control Language, these commands are used to create roles, grant permission and control access to the database objects. The three DCL commands are-

GRANT - Grants permission to a database user
REVOKE - Removes access privileges from a user provided with the GRANT command
Deny - Explicitly prevents a user from receiving a particular permission(e.g. preventing a particular user belonging to a group to receive the access controls

Ques.13. Explain TCL commands. What are the different TCL commands in SQL?
Ans. TCL refers to Transaction Control Language, it is used to manage the changes made by DML statements. These are used to process a group of SQL statements comprising a logical unit. The three TCL commands are-

COMMIT - Commit write the changes to the database
SAVEPOINT - Savepoints are the breakpoints, these divide the transaction into smaller logical units which could be further roll-backed.
ROLLBACK - Rollbacks are used to restore the database since a last commit.

Ques.14. What are SQL constraints?
Ans. SQL constraints are the set of rules that impose some restriction while insertion, deletion or updation of data in the databases. In SQL we have both column level as well as table level constraints which are applied at columns and tables respectively. Some of constraints in SQL are - Primary Key, Foreign Key, Unique Key Key, Not NULL, DEFUALT, CHECK and Index constraint.

Ques.15. What is a Unique constraint?
Ans. A unique constraint is used to ensure that the field/column will have only unique value(no duplication).

Ques.16. What is a Primary Key?
Ans. A primary key is a column or a combination of columns which uniquely identifies a record in the database. A primary key can only have unique and not NULL values and there can be only one primary key in a table.

Ques.17. What is the difference between unique key and primary key?
Ans. A unique key allows null value(although only one) but a primary key doesn't allow null values. A table can have more than one unique keys columns while there can be only one primary key. A unique key column creates non-clustered index whereas primary key creates a clustered index on the column.

Ques.18. What is a composite key?
Ans. A composite key is a primary key with multiple columns as in case of some tables a single field might not guarantee unique and not null values, so a combination of multiple fields is taken as primary key.

Ques.19. What is a NULL value?
Ans. A NULL value in SQL is an unknown or blank value. Since NULL is unknown value so, NULL value cannot be compared with another NULL values. Hence we cannot use '=' operator in where condition with NULL. For this, we have IS NULL clause that checks if the value in field is NULL or not.

Ques.20. What is a Not Null constraint?
Ans. A Not NULL constraint is used for ensuring that the value in the field cannot be NULL.

Ques.21. What is a Foreign Key?
Ans. A foreign key is used for enforcing referential integrity in which a field marked as foriegn key in one table is linked with primary key of another table. With this refrential integrity we can have only the data in foreign key which matches the data in the primary key of the other table.

Ques.22. What is a Check constraint?
Ans. A check constraint is used to limit the value entered in a field. E.g. we can ensure that field 'Salary' can only have value greater than 1000 using check constraint-


Ques.23. What is a Default constraint?
Ans. A Default constraint is used for providing a default value to a column when no value is supplied at the time of insertion of record in the database.

Ques.24. What is a clustered index?
Ans. Clustered indexes physically sort the rows in the table based on the clustering key(by default primary key). Clustered index helps in fast retrieval of data from the databases. There can be only one clustered index in a table.

Ques.25. What is a non-clustered index?
Ans. Non clustered indexes have a jump table containing key-values pointing to row in the table corresponding to the keys. There can be multiple clustered indexes in a table.

Ques.26. What is the difference between delete, truncate and drop command?
Ans. The difference between the Delete, Truncate and Drop command is -

Delete command is a DML command, it removes rows from table based on the condition specified in the where clause, being a DML statement we can rollback changes made by delete command.
Truncate is a DDL command, it removes all the rows from table and also frees the space held unlike delete command. It takes lock on the table while delete command takes lock on rows of table.
Drop is a DDL command, it removes the complete data along with the table structure(unlike truncate command that removes only the rows).

Ques.27. What are the different types of joins in SQL?
Ans. Joins are used to combine records from multiple tables. The different types of joins in SQL are-

Inner Join - To fetch rows from two tables having matching data in the specified columns of both the tables.

Left Join - To fetch all rows from left table and matching rows of the right table

Right Join - To fetch all rows from right table and matching rows of the left table

Full Outer Join - To fetch all rows of left table and all rows of right table

Self Join - Joining a table to itself, for referencing its own data
SELECT * FROM TABLE1 T1, TABLE1 T2 WHERE T1.columnA = T2.columnB;

Ques.28. What is the difference between cross join and full outer join?
Ans. A cross join returns cartesian product of the two tables, so there is no condition or on clause as each row of tabelA is joined with each row of tableB whereas a full outer join will join the two tables on the basis of condition specified in the on clause and for the records not satisfying the condition null value is placed in the join result.

Ques.29. What are difference between having and where clause?
Ans. A 'where' clause is used to fetch data from database that specifies a particular criteria (specified after the where clause). Whereas a 'having' clause is used along with 'groupby' to fetch data that meets a particular criteria specified by the aggregate function. For example-

Employee Project
A P1
B P2
C P3
B P3
In the above table if we want to fetch Employee working in project P2, we will use 'where' clause-

Select Employee from Emp_Project wh2ere Project = P2;

Now if we want to fetch Employee who is working on more than one project, for this we will first have to group the Employee column along with count of project and than the 'having' clause can be used to fetch relevant records-

Select Employee from Emp_Project groupby Employee having count(Project)>1;

Ques.30. What is the difference between Union and Union All command?
Ans. The fundamental difference between Union and Union All command is, Union is by default distinct i.e. it combines the distinct result set of two or more select statements. Whereas, Union combines all the rows including duplicates in the result set of different select statements.

Ques.31. Define the select into statement.
Ans. Select into statement is used to directly select data from one table and insert into other, the new table gets created with same name and type as of the old table-
SELECT * INTO newtable FROM oldTable;

Ques.32. What is a View in SQL?
Ans. A view is virtual table, it is a named set of SQL statements which can be later referenced and used as a table.


Ques.33. Can we use 'where' clause with 'groupby'?
Ans. Yes, we can use 'where' clause with 'groupBy'. The rows that doesn't meet the where conditions are removed first and then the grouping is done based on the groupby column.
SELECT Employee, Count(Project )
FROM Emp_Project
WHERE Employee != 'A'
GROUP BY Project;

Ques.34. What is Database Normalisation?
Ans. Database normalisation is the process of organisation of data in order to reduce the redundancy and anamolies in the database. We have different Normalisation forms in SQL like - First Normal Form, Second Normal Form, Third Normal Form and BCNF.

Ques.35. Explain First Normal Form(1NF).
Ans. According to First Normal Form a column cannot have multiple values, each value in the columns must be atomic.

Ques.36. Explain Second Normal Form(2NF).
Ans. For a table to be considered in Second Normal Form, it must follow 1NF and no column should be dependent on the primary key.

Ques.37. Explain Third Normal Form(3NF).
Ans. For a table to be Third Normla Form, it must follow 2NF and each non-prime attribute must be dependent on primary key of the table.
For each functional dependency X -> Y either-
X should be the super key or Y should be the prime attribute(part of one of the candidate keys) of table

Ques.38. Explain Boyce and Codd Normal Form(BCNF).
Ans. BCNF is the advanced or stricter version of 3NF.
For each functional dependency X -> Y-
X should be the super key

Ques.39. What are transactions in SQL?
Ans. Transaction is a set of operations performed in a logical sequence. It is executed as a whole, if any statement in the transaction fails, the whole transaction is marked as failed and not committed to the database.

Ques.40. What are ACID properties?
Ans. ACID properties refers to the four properties of transactions in SQL-

Atomicity - All the operations in the transaaction are performed as a whole or not performed at all.
Consistency - State of database changes only on successfull committed transaction.
Isolation - Even with concurrent execution of the multiple transactions, the final state of the DB would be same as if transactions got executed sequentially. In otehr words each transaction is isolated from one another.
Durability - Even in the state of crash or power loss the state of committed transaction remain persistent.

Ques.41. What are locks in SQL?
Ans. Locks in SQL are used for maintaining database integrity in case of concurrent execution of same peice of data.

Ques.42. What are the different types of locks in database?
Ans. The different types of locks in database are-

Shared locks - Allows data to be read-only(Select operations), prevents the data to be updated when in shared lock.
Update locks - Applied to resources that can be updated. There can be only one update lock on a data at a time.
Exclusive locks - Used to lock data being modified(INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE) by one transaction thus ensuring that multiple updates cannot be made to the same resource at the same time.
Intent locks - A notification mechanism usinh which a transaction conveys that intends to acquire lock on data.
Schema locks- Used for operations when schema or structure of the database is required to be updated.
Bulk Update locks - Used in case of bulk operations when the TABLOCK hint is used.

Ques.43. What are aggregate functions in SQL?
Ans. Aggregate functions are the SQL functions which return a single value calculated from multiple values of columns. Some of the aggregate functions in SQL are-

Count() - Returns the count of the number of rows returned by the SQL expression
Max() - Returns the max value out of the total values
Min() - Returns the min value out of the total values
Avg() - Returns the average of the total values
Sum() - Returns the sum of the values returned by the SQL expression

Ques.44. What are scalar functions in SQL?
Ans. Scalar functions are the functions that return a single value by processing a single value in SQL. Some of the wodely used SQL functions are-

UCASE() - USed to convert a string to upper case
LCASE() - Used to convert a string to lower case
ROUND() - Used to round a number to the decimal places specified
NOW() - Used to fetch current system date and time
LEN() - Used to find length of a string
SUBSTRING() or MID() - MID and SUBSTRING are synonyms in SQL. They are used to extract a substring from a string by specifying the start and end index. Syntax - SUBSTRING(ColumnName,startIndex,EndIndex).
LOCATE() - Used to find the index of the character in a string. Syntax - LOCATE(character,ColumnName)
LTRIM() - Used to trim spaces from left
RTRIM() - Used to trim spaces from right

Ques.45. What is a coalesce function?
Ans. Coalesce function is used to return the first not NULL value out of the multiple values or expressions passed to the coalesce function as parameters.Example-
COALESCE(NULL, NULL, 5, 'ArtOfTesting') will return the value 5.
COALESCE(NULL, NULL, NULL) will return NULL value as no not NULL value is encountered in the parameters list.

Ques.46. What are cursors in SQL?
Ans. Cursors are objects in SQL that are used to traverse the result set of a SQL query one by one.

Ques.47. What are stored procedures? Explain there advanatages?
Ans. Stored procedures are SQL procedures(bunch of SQL statements) that are stored in the database and can be called by other procedures, triggers and other applications.

Set of SQL statements

The advantages of stored procedure are-

Stored procedures improve performance as the procedures are pre-compiled as well as cached.
Make queries easliy maintanable and reusable as any change is required to be made at single location.
Reduce network usage and traffic.
Improve security as stored procedures restrict direct access to the database.

Ques.48. What are triggers in SQL?
Ans. Triggers are special type of stored procedures that get executed when a specified event occurs. Syntax-

triggerTime{Before or After}
triggerEvent{Insert, Update or Delete}
ON tableName

Ques.49. What are orphan records?
Ans. Orphan records are the records having foreign key to a parent record which doesn't exist or got deleted.

Ques.50. How can we remove orphan records from a table?
Ans. In order to remove orphan records from database we need to create a join on the parent and child tables and then remove the rows from child table where id IS NULL.

FROM ParentTable PT

*Remember: Delete with joins requires name/alias before from clause in order to specify the table of which data is to be deleted.

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